Another important expounded by the British philosopher is on the "harm principle". It holds that "each individual has the right to act as he wants, so long as these actions do not harm others". The only exception is when actions are self-regarding: when the individual only affects himself and no others. In this case, the society does not have any responsibility to intervene. He further elaborated the principle well within the framework on his discussion of liberty - "the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection. That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others."
The third and fourth principles Mill had greatly contributed so much for liberal political theory are social liberty and tyranny of majority. The former has been defined by the author as "as protection from the tyranny of political rulers", while the latter is "a desire of a people to oppress a part of their number; and precautions are as much needed against this, as against any other abuse of power". These two rules have been subserved in his discussion of the nature of liberty in his book "On Liberty", where he explores the relationship between liberty and authority.
The last of the principles, which this political thinker had been popularly associated with, is utilitarianism, which he heavily was influenced by the thoughts of Jeremy Bentham, a British legal thinker, whom his father had pound on him, when he was still young. This has been usually encapsulated famous formulation "greatest happiness principle". It holds that an action should produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. He further qualitatively divided and separation pleasures: "It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better t obe Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, are of a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question."
Principles To Be Integrated to Philippine Government
Here I will cite one principle, which needs to be greatly integrated in the present governance: the prevention of the Tyranny of Majority. This tyranny make take several forms in Philippine life, and without our knowing it, it might have contributed to some of the disastrous social effects of Filipinos. In the Spanish days, it was the tyranny of the majority in power, who perpetuated the status quo to avoid freedom given over to the Indios. In the American rule, it was the majority of American ideals that intoxicated the universities, whose ideas hampered in any way from seeing ourselves as distinct capable of ruling ourselves. The post-war years saw Filipinos emerging from the dictates of a western capitalist government to a fledgling republic, which had displayed hints and traces of emerging corruptive government. Marcos regime saw a consolidation of power in a strongman rule, whose presidency culled a few majority, who virtually run the whole economy. We have yet to deserve that majority rule, whereby the principle of social liberty dictates the majority's will on to the bars of power and serves each individuals who comprise that political society by securing first and foremost self-protection from the caprice from without.